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Anatomy, a subset of biology (bios = life), is the study of the structure of animals and their parts. The word “anatomy” consists of the Greek stem –ana, which means ‘up,’ and temnein (in the form tom), which means ‘to cut.’ As such, the word “anatomy” literally means to cut up.
Human anatomy and the study of the functions of the human body is one of the essential sciences in the study of medicine. The study of anatomy can be divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy.
Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the study of the examination of body parts using unaided eyesight.
Microscopic anatomy, or histology, is the study of the examination of body parts using optical instruments. Using an instrument, an observer studies the tissues of various structures. The word “histology” is made up of the Greek stem “-histos,” meaning tissue.
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The study of anatomy is crucial to understanding the human body. Kinesthetic learners benefit from the active study of anatomy and learning about internal structures through dissection. However, anatomy also requires extensive memorization and understanding of concepts.
Are you having difficulty memorizing every muscle, cell and tissue? Maybe you close your eyes and your mind races about what gland is secreting the liquid and what muscle you use to blink? A Tutor the People Anatomy tutor will help you learn this material. If you choose one-on-one tutoring, one of our tutors will devise a completely individualized study plan, based upon your existing knowledge in the material, which will bring you to a fortified understanding in your anatomy studies. Our tutors have a proven mastery of the anatomy material; and through their experience, they have learned ways to memorize and work through the material. Our tutors will be able to help you navigate your way through human anatomy and help you with skills to memorize everything you need to know for your class and more.
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Basic Anatomy Concepts:
4 Basic Types of Cell Tissues
- Nervous Tissue: allows for communication and controls body functions
- Muscle Tissue: provides movement
- Epithelial Tissue: lines body cavities and covers body surfaces
- Connective Tissue: protects and supports body organs
One of the first things you might learn in your anatomy course are the 11 organ systems. Organ systems are structures that work together to perform a task. The 11 organ systems are:
- Integumentary System: the external covering of the body– the skin
- Skeletal System: the body’s internal framework– the bones
- Muscular System: the body’s means of movement– the muscles
- Nervous System: the body’s control center– the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
- Endocrine System: glands that secrete hormones–pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, testes, etc.
- Cardiovascular System: the body’s transport system– the heart, blood and blood vessels
- Lymphatic/Immune System: returns fluids to the blood stream
- Respiratory System: Removes CO2 from the blood and delivers O2. – breathing
- Digestive System: breaks down food, absorbs food, transports food, and eliminates indigestible remains
- Urinary System: eliminates nitrogenous waste from blood
- Reproductive System
- Male Reproductive System: Produces sperm and testosterone
- Female Reproductive System: Produces oocytes, estrogen and progesterone
Breakdown of the Cardiovascular System
Other Anatomy Facts
- The human skeleton is made up of 206 named bones
- Bone exterior is compact, and bone interior is spongy
- There are four basic types of bone: short bones, long bones, irregular bones, flat bones
- The Nervous System has three basic functions:
- sensory input: using receptors to monitor internal and external environments
- integration: processes sensory information and determines the action
- motor output: a response by an effector to a change in an internal or external environment
- The human tongue is covered with papillae: small projections bearing taste buds that aid in gripping food
- Joint Classification:
|Functional Class||Structural Class||Joint||Description Type||Example|
|synarthrosis (immovable)||fibrous||suture||interlocking seams||between cranial bones|
|synarthrosis (immovable)||fibrous||gomphosis||peg-and-socket joint||between teeth|
|synarthrosis (immovable)||cartilaginous||synchrondrosis||between diaphysis and epiphysis in long bones||hyaline cartilage joint|
|amphiarthrosis||fibrous||syndesmosis||ligament or distal interosseous membrane||joint of tibia and fibula|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||gliding||two sliding surfaces||between carpals|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||hinge||concave surface with convex surface||between humerus and ulna|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||pivot||rounded end fits into ring of bone and ligament||between altas C1 and axis, C2 and vertebrae|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||condyloid||oval condyle with oval cavity||between metacarpals and phalanges|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||saddle||each surface is both concave and convex||between carpus and the first metacarpal|
|diarthrosis (freely moveable)||synovial||ball-and-socket||ball-shaped head with cup-shaped socket||between femur and pelvis|
- Somatic Senses detect the following stimuli:
- Tactile stimuli
- Corpuscles of touch
- Merkel discs
- Root hair plexuses
- Pain stimuli
- Thermal stimuli
- Pacinian corpuscules
- Proprioceptive stimuli
- Golgi tendon organs
- Joint kinesthetic receptors
- Muscle spindles
Free anatomy resources:
- American Association of Anatomists
- Anatomy Zone online resources
- Get Body Smart online listing of free Anatomy resources
- Zygote Body Free 3D human anatomy online
- All of these facts listed are just the surface of human anatomy. The study of human anatomy is complex and includes many layers. The best way to guarantee your understanding is through working with a Tutor the People Anatomy tutor.